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 Long Non-coding RNA Array
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts longer than~200 nucleotides with little or no protein-coding capacity. They comprise a large and heterogeneous group which is represented by 4% -9% of the mammalian genome (only 1% of mammalian genome represents protein coding genes). According to their genomic locations relative to protein coding genes, lncRNAs can be divided into five types: (1) sense, (2) antisense, (3) bidirectional, (4) intronic, (5) intergenic. (Figure 1). lncRNAs were initially thought as the transcriptional noise of transcriptome, the by products of RNA polymerase II, and had no biological functions. But more and more data recently have shown that many of the lncRNAs exhibit cell type-specific expression and subcellular localization, many of them are also conserved in secondary structures and splicing patterns. These evidences suggest that lncRNAs are functional. In fact, Some fully characterized lncRNAs are involved in many cellular events including X chromosome inactivation[1], genome imprinting[2], chromatin modification[3], transcriptional activation[4], transcriptional interference[5], and nuclear transportation, some lncRNA are also implicated in diseases.

Fig. 1. Genomic organization of lncRNA. Coding and noncoding transcripts are shown in blue and orange, respectively.
 
lncRNA and biological functions
lncRNAs have diverse functions, they can regulate gene expression at different levels, including epigenetic gene regulation, transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation.
(1) Epigenetic gene regulation
(2) Transcriptional regulation
       Transcriptional Interference
       Blocking the promoter by direct binding
       Interacting with RNA binding protein
       Transcriptional cofactor
(3) Post-transcriptional regulation
 
lncRNA and disease
Plenty of research has shown the expression levels of some lncRNAs have been altered in many kinds of diseases, especially in cancers. Such as BCMS in B-cell neoplasia[12], CMPD in Campomyelic dysplasia[13], DD3 in prostate cancer[14], H19 in liver and breast cancer[15, 16], HIS-1 in myeloid leukemia[17], HOST2 in ovarian cancer cells[18] MALAT-1 in NSCLC and hepatocellular carcinoma[19, 20], NC612 in Prostate cancer[21], NCRMS in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma[22], OCC1 in colon carcinoma[23], PCGEM1 in prostate cancer[24], and SAR in breast cancer[25].
 
These altered expression suggests a role of lncRNAs in carcinogenesis, and some of them may be considered as potential drug target for cancer therapy[26] (Figure 7).

Figure 7, Recent work on Alzheimer’s disease has identified a 2-kb ncRNA antisense to the beta-secretase (BACE1) gene, which generates amyloid beta (Ab), that may aid in driving the disease. The ncRNA can increases the stability of the BACE1 mRNA, thus leading to even more Ab peptides and promote the disease progression. However, treatment with siRNAs against the lncRNA will reduces the levels of Ab peptides, suggesting that this noncoding transcript may serve as an attractive drug target candidate for Alzheimer’s disease.
 
Until now there are still a large proportion of lncRNAs remaining uncharacterized. The elucidation of the involvement of lncRNAs in regulatory networks will improve our understanding of both cellular events and disease genesis. With next generation high throughput sequencing technique and high throughput microarray profiling technique, we can hasten the new lncRNAs discovery progress and reveal more subtle regulatory roles of them.
 
LncRNA microarray Service
The microarray we use is designed for global profiling of long transcripts, both lncRNAs (long non-coding RNAs) and protein coding mRNAs. Each transcript is represented by 1-5 unique probes to improve statistical confidence.
More than 22000 lncRNAs are collected from the authoritative data sources including NCBI RefSeq, UCSC, RNAdb, lncRNAs from literatures, and UCRs. Sequences from those data sources are selected with proprietary strategies. Repeat sequences and ncRNAs shorter than 200 bp have been deleted.

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Long Non-coding RNA Array
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